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 Detail from the Roman de la Rose
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KETTLE STITCH

A stitch at or near the HEAD and TAIL of a manuscript that links a QUIRE to the preceding one during sewing.

KNIFE

Arundel MS 43, f. 80v

A pen knife was used by SCRIBES for a number of purposes, including PRICKING, cutting the nib of a quill PEN, and CORRECTION by scraping out errors. Medieval depictions of SCRIBES often show them holding a quill in one hand and a knife in the other. The counterbalance of tools was not only convenient, but it helped to achieve an even pressure of SCRIPT and to secure the writing surface.

KYRIALE

The portion of a GRADUAL containing the ordinary chants (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus dei) of the MASS, that is, the chants whose texts remain unchanged throughout the ecclesiastical year. In the late Middle Ages, the kyriale sometimes formed a separate volume.

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